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Domestic Hardwood & Softwood

domestic 

Hardwood & Softwood

Decking & Lumber

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Alder

Alder, also called Red Alder and Western Red Alder (scientific name: Alnusrubra), has a heartwood of light tan to red-brown color. Sapwood is not distinguishable from the heartwood. Its texture is medium-fine, and grain is mostly straight.



commonly found in: western North America

Janka Hardness: 2,620 N(590 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 450 kg/m3(28 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Easy to achieve good results with hand tools and machine tools. It is very good with glues and stains, and finishes well. It sands easily, but softness makes it prone to denting. Good for turning.

Basswood

Basswood, also called American Basswood, Lime, and Linden (scientific name: Tiliaamericana), has a heartwood of white to light brown color. Sapwood is not distinguishable from heartwood, and knots are uncommon. Its texture is even, luster is moderate, and grain is straight.



commonly found in: Eastern North America

Janka Hardness: 1,820 N (410 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 415 kg/m3 (26 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Soft and light, it is easy to work with. Well suited for hand carving, gluing, and finishing. Poor steam bending and nail holding properties.

Beech

Beech, also called American Beech (scientific name: Fagusgrandifolia), is a pale cream color and has a pink/brown hue. Flat cut/sawn surfaces are plain, quarter cut/sawn surfaces present silvery flecks. Its texture is fine to medium, has a straight grain and luster is moderate.



commonly found in: Eastern North America

Janka Hardness: 5,780 N (1,300 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 720 kg/m3 (45 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good for machining, gluing, and finishing. It turns well and responds excellently to steam bending. A large movement in service means stability needs to be considered.

Birch

Birch, also called Silver Birch (scientific name: Betulapendula), has a heartwood of light red-brown color. Sapwood is nearly white. Its texture is even, luster is low and grain ranges from slightly wavy to mostly straight.



commonly found in: Eastern North America

Janka Hardness: 4,050 N (910 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 610 kg/m3 (38 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good results can be achieved with either hand tools or machine tools. It is good with glues and stains, and finishes well. Boards with wild grain are prone to tear-out during machining.

Birdseye Maple

Birdseye Maple, also called Bird’s Eye Maple (scientific name: Acer saccharum), is not a distinct species of maple (see Hard Maple). It is considered a grain anomaly. It is almost exclusively harvested from Hard Maple.



Janka Hardness: 6,450 N (1,450 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 705 kg/m3 (44.0 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Fairly easy to achieve good results with either hand tools or machine tools. However, when machined with high-speed cutters it tends to burn. Turns well and is good for steam bending. It is good with glues and finishes well. Staining can produce blotching. Avoid using gel stain, toner, or pre-conditioner for an even color.

Butternut

Butternut, also called White Walnut (scientific name: Juglans cinerea), has a heartwood of light to medium tan color, occasionally with a red tint. Sapwood is pale yellow-white. Its texture is moderate to coarse, luster is silky and grain is straight.



commonly found in: eastern United States

Janka Hardness: 2,180 N (490 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 435 kg/m3 (27 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Easy to work with hand tools and machine tools. It is good with glues and stains, and finishes well. Because it is so soft, planing and sanding can leave surface fuzzy. Avoid this with fine grit sandpaper and sharp cutters.

Cherry

Cherry, also called Black Cherry and American Cherry (scientific name: Prunusserotina), has a heartwood of light pink-brown color, which darkens to red-brown after being cut. Sapwood is pale yellow. Its texture is fine and even, luster is moderate and grain is straight (sometimes curly patterns).



commonly found in: eastern North America

Janka Hardness: 4,230 N (950 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 560 kg/m3 (35 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: A stable and straight grain wood, it machines well and is excellent for workability. Common sapwood can lead to higher waste. Staining can occasionally produce blotchy results. Avoid using gel-based stain or using a sanding-sealer before staining.

Curly Maple

Curly Maple, also called Fiddleback, Maple, Tiger Maple, Flamed Maple, and Ripple Maple (genus: Acer) is not a distinct species of maple (see Hard Maple). It is considered a grain pattern is found in most Acer species.



Janka Hardness: 6,450 N (700 to 1,450 lbf) depending on species

Average Dried Weight: 485 to 705 kg/m3 (30.2 to 44.0 lbs/ft3) depending on species

Hard Maple

(Also Available in Quarter Cut)

Hard Maple, also called Sugar Maple and Rock Maple (scientific name: Acer saccharum), has a heartwood of dark red-brown color. The sapwood tends to range from nearly white to off-white cream with a red or golden hue. Its texture is fine and even, and the grain is straight but can be wavy.



commonly found in: northeastern North America

Janka Hardness: 6,450 N (1,450 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 705 kg/m3 (44.0 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Fairly easy to achieve good results with either hand tools or machine tools. However, when machined with high-speed cutters it tends to burn. It turns well and is good for steam bending. It is good with glues and finishes well. Staining can produce blotching. Avoid using gel stain, toner, or pre-conditioner for an even color.

Hickory

Hickory, also called Shagbark Hickory (scientific name: Caryaovata), has a heartwood of light to medium brown color, with a reddish hue. Sapwood is pale yellow-brown. Its texture is medium and grain is straight (sometimes wavy).



commonly found in: eastern United States

Janka Hardness: 8,360 N (1,880 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 800 kg/m3 (50 lbs/ft3)



Workability: It is difficult to work with, and prone to tear-out during machining if cutter is not sharp. Also causes cutting edges to become blunt. It is good with glues and stains, and finishes well. Responds well to steam bending.

Poplar

Poplar also called Tulip Poplar and Yellow Poplar (scientific name: Liriodendron tulipifera), has a heartwood of light cream to yellow-brown color with occasional grey/green streaks. Sapwood is pale yellow to white and not distinguishable from the heartwood. Its texture is medium, luster is low and grain is straight and uniform.



Commonly found in: eastern United States

Janka Hardness: 2,400 N (540 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 455 kg/m3 (29 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good results achieved with either hand tools or machine tools and easy to work within almost all regards. Softness can cause fuzzy surface and edges while sanding and shaping. Get a smooth surface by using the finer grit of sandpaper.

Red Oak

Red Oak (scientific name: Quercusrubra) has a heartwood of light to medium brown color, with a reddish cast. Sapwood is nearly white to light brown and not distinguishable from the heartwood. Its texture is coarse and uneven, and grain is straight. Quarter cut/sawn sections have prominent ray fleck patterns.



commonly found in: southeastern Canada and northeastern United States

Janka Hardness: 5,430 N (1,220 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 700 kg/m3 (44 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good results achieved with either hand tools or machine tools.Turns well and responds well to steam bending. It is good with glues and stains and finishes well.Moderate to high shrinkage value results in poor dimensional stability, particularly in flat cut/sawn boards. Prone to reacting with iron, especially when wet, which causes discoloration and staining.

Red Oak (Quarter Cut)

 Red Oak (scientific name: Quercusrubra) has a heartwood of light to medium brown color, with a reddish cast. Sapwood is nearly white to light brown and not distinguishable from the heartwood. Its texture is coarse and uneven, and grain is straight. Quarter cut/sawn sections have prominent ray fleck patterns.



commonly found in: southeastern Canada and northeastern United States

Janka Hardness: 5,430 N (1,220 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 700 kg/m3 (44 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good results are achieved with either hand tools or machine tools. Turns well and responds well to steam bending. It is good with glues and stains and finishes well. Moderate to high shrinkage value results in poor dimensional stability, particularly in flat cut/sawn boards. Prone to reacting with iron, especially when wet, which causes discoloration and staining.

Red Oak (Rift Cut)

Red Oak (scientific name: Quercusrubra) has a heartwood of light to medium brown color, with a reddish cast. Sapwood is nearly white to light brown and not distinguishable from the heartwood. Its texture is coarse and uneven, and grain is straight. Quarter cut/sawn sections have prominent ray fleck patterns.



commonly found in: south eastern Canada and northeastern United States J

Janka Hardness: 5,430 N (1,220 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 700 kg/m3 (44 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good results are achieved with either hand tools or machine tools. Turns well and responds well to steam bending. It is good with glues and stains and finishes well. Moderate to high shrinkage value results in poor dimensional stability, particularly in flat cut/sawn boards. Prone to reacting with iron, especially when wet, which causes discoloration and staining

Soft Maple

Soft Maple, (genus: Acer) is not a distinct species of maple (see Hard Maple). It is a commercial lumber term used to distinguish between Hard Maple and other types of maple.



commonly found in: in temperate regions of North America

Janka Hardness: 4,230 N (700 to 950 lbf) depending on species

Average Dried Weight: 485 to 610 kg/m3 (30.2 to 38.0 lbs/ft3) depending on species

Walnut

Walnut, also called Black Walnut (scientific name: Juglansnigra), has a heartwood of pale brown to dark brown color with dark brown streaks. Sapwood is pale yellow-grey to white. Figured grain patterns are also present. Its texture is medium, luster is moderate and grain is generally straight but may be slightly irregular.



commonly found in: eastern United States

Janka Hardness: 4,490 N(1,010 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 610 kg/m3(38 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Easy to work with if the grain is straight and regular. If the grain is irregular or figured, surface pieces can suffer tear-out during planning. It is good with glues and stains(even if staining is unlikely) and finishes well. Responds well to steam bending.

Walnut (Quarter Cut)

Walnut, also called Black Walnut (scientific name: Juglansnigra), has a heartwood of pale brown to dark brown color with dark brown streaks. Sapwood is pale yellow-grey to white. Figured grain patterns are also present. Its texture is medium, luster is moderate and grain is generally straight but may be slightly irregular.



commonly found in: eastern United States

Janka Hardness: 4,490 N(1,010 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 610 kg/m3(38 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Easy to work with if the grain is straight and regular. If the grain is irregular or figured, surface pieces can suffer tear-out during planning. It is good with glues and stains(even if staining is unlikely) and finishes well. Responds well to steam bending.

White Ash

White Ash, also called American White Ash (scientific name: Fraxinusamericana), has a heartwood of light to medium brown color. Sapwood tends to be wide and of a beige or light color. Its texture is medium to coarse and like that of oak.



commonly found in: Eastern North America

Janka Hardness: 5,870 N (1,320 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 675 kg/m3 (42 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good results can be achieved with either hand tools or machine tools. It is good with glues and stains and finishes well. Responds well to steam bending.

White Oak

White Oak (scientific name: Quercus alba) has a heartwood of light to medium brown color with an olive cast. Sapwood is almost white to light brown and not distinguishable from the heartwood. Its texture is coarse and uneven, and grain is straight.



commonly found in: eastern United States

Janka Hardness: 5,990 N (1,350 lbf)

Average Dried Weight: 755 kg/m3 (47 lbs/ft3)



Work-ability: Good results are achieved with either hand tools or machine tools. Turns well and responds well to steam bending. It is good with glues and stains and finishes well. Moderate to high shrinkage value results in poor dimensional stability, particularly in flat cut/sawn boards. Prone to reacting with iron, especially when wet), which causes discoloration and staining.

Aromatic Cedar

Nothing smells better than these cedar wood planks!

This wood is extremely colourful with a large range of colour from reds to violet-browns. The sap wood is a distinctive yellow colour and unlike most sapwoods, it can be found in streaks through the heartwood, not just on the outside of the tree. Be prepared for a bit of a challenge. There are many knots found in aromatic cedar which can be a challenge. The wood also has a high silica content that will wreak havoc on your edge tools. It glues and finishes well though it is typically left unfinished.  Unfinished Aromatic Cedar is great for closets, chest and box lining because it keeps the bugs away. It is also quite rot resistant making it perfect for fence posts or outdoor furniture or projects..

Douglas Fir

Color/Appearance: Can vary in color based upon age and location of tree. Usually a light brown color with a hint of red and/or yellow, with darker growth rings.  In quartersawn pieces, the grain is typically straight and plain. In flatsawn pieces, (typically seen in rotary-sliced veneers), the wood can exhibit wild grain patterns.



Grain/Texture: Grain is generally straight, or slightly wavy. Medium to coarse texture, with moderate natural luster.



Janka Hardness: 620 lbf

Western Red Cedar

Color/Appearance: Heartwood reddish to pinkish brown, often with random streaks and bands of darker red/brown areas. Narrow sapwood is pale yellowish white, and isn’t always sharply demarcated from the heartwood.



Grain/Texture: Straight grain with a coarse texture and moderate natural luster.



Workability: Easy to work with both hand or machine tools, though it dents and scratches very easily due to its softness, and can sand unevenly due to the difference in density between the earlywood and latewood zones. Glues and finishes well. Iron-based fasteners can stain and discolor the wood, especially in the presence of moisture.



Janka Hardness : 350 lbf

White Pine

Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light brown, sometimes with a slightly reddish hue, sapwood is a pale yellow to nearly white. Color tends to darken with age.



Grain/Texture: Grain is straight with an even, medium texture.



Workability: Eastern White Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well.



Janka Hardness: 380 lbf